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Belén del Valle Vera
Angelina Pilatti
Ricardo Marcos Pautassi

El consumo de sustancias es altamente prevalente en estudiantes universitarios de Argentina y el mundo. Diferenciar consumidores con diversos patrones de consumo de sustancias es importante para identificar aquellos más vulnerables a avanzar hacia un consumo patológico. Por ello, el objetivo fue identificar, mediante Análisis de Clases Latentes (ACL) aplicado a diferentes indicadores de consumo de alcohol, tabaco y marihuana, las clases de consumidores y observar si dichas clases diferían en la densidad de familiares con abuso de alcohol y otros indicadores de consumo. El análisis se realizó en un total de 4497 estudiantes de primer año que completaron instrumentos para medir: 1-consumo de alcohol, 2-consecuencias negativas del consumo de alcohol y 3-historia familiar de abuso de alcohol. Así se identificaron cuatro clases de consumidores: 1-ACTM: Consumo Elevado de Alcohol, Consumo de Tabaco y Marihuana; 2-CMEA: Consumo Moderado/Elevado de Alcohol, Sin Consumo de Otras Sustancias; 3-CMBA: Consumo Moderado/Bajo de Alcohol, Sin Consumo de Otras Sustancias; y 4-SC: Sin Consumo de Sustancias. Los miembros de las clases CATM y CMEA reportaron niveles de consumo de alcohol significativamente más elevados que el resto de las clases. Los integrantes de CATM presentaron consumo extremo de alcohol. Las clases SC y CATM exhibieron mayor densidad de familiares con abuso de alcohol que las otras clases. La mayor parte de los encuestados fueron clasificados en categorías de consumo de alto riesgo, caracterizadas por co-uso de sustancias o por consumo elevado de alcohol. Estos patrones de consumo se han asociado a numerosas consecuencias negativas.


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