DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12804/apl33.02.2015.08

Las bases teóricas de la técnica de recreación del contexto en la Entrevista Cognitiva

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Luciano Haussen Pinto, Lilian Milnitsky Stein

Resumen


Las bases teóricas de la técnica de recreación del contexto en la Entrevista Cognitiva

Luciano Haussen Pinto, Lilian Milnitsky Stein

Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS)

 

A correspondência relacionada com este artigo deve ser direcionada a Luciano Haussen Pinto. Correio eletrônico: luciano.hp@gmail.com


Resumo

Na apuração de um crime as vítimas e testemunhas possuem um papel decisivo. Na área da Psicologia do Testemunho, muito tem se avançado em métodos de entrevista investigativa, sendo a Entrevista Cognitiva uma das mais consolidadas atualmente. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma revisão narrativa da literatura sobre uma das técnicas da Entrevista Cognitiva: a recriação do contexto. Muitos estudos atribuem em grande parte à recriação do contexto o êxito da Entrevista Cognitiva em otimizar os depoimentos tanto em termos de quantidade quanto de qualidade das informações lembradas. Foram analisadas as bases teóricas sobre memória que ajudam a explicar quais mecanismos a recriação do contexto aciona e que favorecem a recordação. Os efeitos positivos da técnica possuem relação direta com a noção de memória dependente do contexto e com o princípio da especificidade de codificação. Por fim, são referidas algumas limitações, bem como novas alternativas de utilização da técnica.

Palavras-chave: recriação do contexto; entrevista cognitiva; psicologia do testemunho; memória dependente do contexto; especificidade de codificação.


Abstract

In reporting a crime the victims and witnesses have a decisive role. In Psychology of Testimony, much has been advanced in methods of investigative interview, being the Cognitive Interview currently the most consolidated around the world. The aim of this study was to perform a narrative review of the literature about one of the techniques of Cognitive Interview: the context reinstatement. Many studies attribute largely to the successful context reinstatement that the Cognitive Interview has in optimizing the statements in terms of both: quantity and quality of information recalled. The theoretical bases of memory were analyzed to explain the mechanisms of the context reinstatement triggers that favor victims/witnesses recall. Its positive effects have direct relation with the notion of context-dependent memory and with the principle of encoding specificity. Finally, we pointed out some limitations, as well as new ways to use the technique.

Keywords: context reinstatement; cognitive interview; psychology of testimony; context-dependent memory; encoding specificity.


ResumenAl informar sobre um delito, las víctimas y testigos tienen un papel decisivo. En la psicología del testimonio, mucho se ha avanzado en los métodos de entrevista de investigación, con la Entrevista Cognitiva uno de los más consolidados en la actualidad. El objetivo de este estudio ha sido realizar una revisión narrativa de la literatura en una de las técnicas de la entrevista cognitiva: la recreación del contexto. Muchos estudios atribuyen en gran parte a la reconstrucción exitosa del contexto de la Entrevista Cognitiva en la optimización de los estados en términos de cantidad y calidad de la información recuperada. Las bases teóricas de la memoria que ayudan a explicar lo que se analizaron los mecanismos de recrear el contexto y los factores desencadenantes que favorecen la recuperación. Los efectos positivos de la técnica tienen relación directa con la noción de la memoria dependiente del contexto y el principio de especificidad de codificación. Por último, se trata de algunas limitaciones , así como nuevas alternativas para usar la técnica

Palabras clave


recreación del contexto; entrevista cognitiva; psicología del testimonio; la memoria dependiente del contexto; especificidad de codificación;

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