Contenido principal del artículo

Carlos Reyes
Amalio Blanco
María José Martos
Rubén Blanco

Holmes y Rahe (1967) reconocen que las experiencias traumáticas son independientes de la valencia emocional del evento y la percepción de amenaza tiene incidencia en cómo son procesadas estas vivencias. Los estudios en priming perceptivo han identificado que personas con trastorno por estrés postraumático (TEPT) presentan ventajas en el procesamiento de información traumática, no obstante, no se ha explorado en población en ausencia de trastorno. El objetivo de esta investigación es explorar el priming en población sin TEPT y evaluar si se produce cuando se percibe amenaza. Se evaluaron 42 universitarios y se les pidió que describieran un suceso autobiográfico, positivo o traumático y el grado de amenaza percibida de dicho evento. Los resultados evidencian diferencias significativas en priming perceptivo en función de la percepción de amenaza del evento, F(2, 42) = 6.562, p = .004, ηp2 = .26, independientemente de la valencia de los hechos narrados. Se discuten las implicaciones de estos resultados en la línea de estudios de memoria implícita y trauma.

Descargas

Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.

Carlos Reyes, Universidad Andina Simón Bolívar, sede Ecuador

Docente e investigador del Programa Andino de Derechos Humanos en la Universidad Andina Simón Bolívar, sede Ecuador.

Amalio Blanco, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid

Catedrático de Psicología Social en Departamento de Psicología Social y Metodología, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, España

María José Martos, Universidad de Málaga

Secretaria Académica, Facultad de Psicología, Departamento de Psicología Social, Antropología Social, Trabajo Social y Estudios de Asia Oriental, Universidad de Málaga, España.

Rubén Blanco, Hospital Universitario “Ramón y Cajal”

Hospital Universitario “Ramón y Cajal”.

Adelman, J. S., & Estes, Z. (2013). Emotion and memory: A recognition advantage for

positive and negative words independent of arousal. Cognition, 129(3), 530-535.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2013.08.014

Airaldi, M.C. (2014). Implicancias de la memoria emocional en la psicoterapia cognitiva.

Revista Interamericana de Psicología, 48(2), 347-354.

Alameda, J.R., & Cuetos, F. (1995). Diccionario de frecuencias de las unidades

lingüísticas del castellano. Oviedo: Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Oviedo.

American Psychiatric Association (2013). DSM-5. Diagnostic and statistical manual of

mental disorders. Washington DC, London: American Psychiatric Publishing.

Amir, N, McNally, R., & Wiegartz, P. (1996). Implicit memory bias for threat in

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 20, 6, 625-635.

Berger, R. (2015). Stress, Trauma, and Posttraumatic Growth: Social Context,

Environment, and Identities. Nueva York y Londres: Routledge.

Blanco, A., Blanco, R., & Díaz, D. (2016). Social (dis)order and psychosocial trauma: Look earlier, Look outside, and Look beyond the persons. American Psychologist, 71, 187-198. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0040100.

Bomyea, J., Risbrough, V., & Lang, A.J. (2012). A consideration of select pre-trauma

factors as key vulnerabilities in PTSD. Clinical Psychological Review, 32, 630-

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2012.06.008.

Breslau, N., Davis, G. C., Andreski, P., & Peterson, E. (1991). Traumatic events and

posttraumatic stress disorder in an urban population of young adults. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48(3), 216-222. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1991.01810270028003.

Brewin, C. R., Andrews, B., & Valentine, J. D. (2000). Meta-analysis of risk factors for

posttraumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(5), 748-766. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-006X.68.5.748.

Dohrenwend, B. P. (2010). Toward a typology of high-risk major stressful events and

situations in posttraumatic stress disorder and related psychopathology. Psychological Injury and Law, 3(2), 89-99. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12207-010-9072-1.

Ehlers, A., & Clark, A. (2000). A cognitive model of posttraumatic stress disorder.

Behavior Research and Therapy, 38, 319-345.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7967(99)00123-0.

Ehring, T., y Ehlers, A. (2011). Enhanced Priming for Trauma-Related Words Predicts

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 120, 234-239.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0021080.

Elwood, L. S., Hahn, K. S., Olatunji, B. O., & Williams, N. L. (2009). Cognitive

vulnerabilities to the development of PTSD: A review of four vulnerabilities and the proposal of an integrative vulnerability model. Clinical Psychological Review, 29, 87-100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2008.10.002.

Foa, E. B., & Kozak, M. J. (1986). Emotional processing of fear: exposure to corrective

information. Psychological Bulletin, 99(1), 20-35.

https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.99.1.20.

Frazier, P. (2011). Trauma Psychology. En E. M. Altmaier y J. I. C. Hansen (Eds.). The

Oxford Handbook of Counseling Psychology. (pp. 807-836), Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gentzler, A. L., Kerns, K. A., & Keener, E. (2010). Emotional reactions and regulatory

responses to negative and positive events: Associations with attachment and gender. Motivation and emotion, 34(1), 78-92. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-009-9149-x.

Hamann, S. (2001). Cognitive and neural mechanisms of emotional memory. Trends in

Cognitive Sciences, 5(9), 394-400. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1364-6613(00)01707-1.

Holmes, T. H., & Rahe, R. H. (1967). The social readjustment rating scale. Journal of

Psychosomatic Research, 11(2), 213-218.

https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-3999(67)90010-4.

Jacoby, L. L., Toth, J. P., & Yonelinas, A. P. (1993). Separating conscious and unconscious

influences of memory: Measuring recollection. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 122, 139 –154

Kensinger, E. A., & Schacter, D. L. (2008). Neural process supporting young and older

adults emotional memories. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20(7), 1161-

https://doi.org/10.1162/jocn.2008.20080.

Kilpatrick, D. G., Resnick, H. S., Milanak, M. E., Miller, M. W., Keyes, K. M., &

Friedman, M. J. (2013). National Estimates of Exposure to Traumatic Events and PTSD Prevalence Using DSM-IV and DMS-5 Criteria. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 26, 537-547. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.21848.

Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1986). Estrés y procesos cognitivos. Barcelona:

Martínez Roca.

Lauth-Lebens, M., & Lauth, G. W. (2016). Risk and resilience factors of post-traumatic stress

disorder: A review of current research. Clin Exp Psychol, 2(120), 2. http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2471-2701.1000120.

Longhi Lorenzzoni, P., Gacia Silva, T. L., Pasquali Poletto, M., Haag Kristensen, C., &

Gauer, G. (2014). Autobiographical memory for stressful events, traumatic memory and post traumatic stress disorder: a systematic review. Avances en Psicología Latinoamericana, 32(3), 361-376. http://dx.doi.org/10.12804/apl32.03.2014.08.

Manzanero, A. L., & López, B. (2007). Características de los recuerdos autobiográficos

sobre sucesos traumáticos. Boletín de Psicología, 90, 7-17.

Mather, M., & Sutherland, M. (2009). Disentangling the effects of arousal and valence

on memory for intrinsic details. Emotion Review, 1(2), 118-119.

https://doi.org/10.1177/1754073908100435.

Megías, J.L., Ryan, E., Vaquero, J.M.M., & Frese, B. (2007). Comparisons of

Traumatic and Positive memories in People with and without PTSD profile. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 21, 117-130. https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.1282.

Michael, T., Ehlers, A., & Halligan, S. L. (2005). Enhanced Priming for Trauma-

Related Material in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Emotion, 5(1), 103-112.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1528-3542.5.1.103.

Ozer, E. J., Best, S. R., Lipsey, T. L., & Weiss, D. S. (2003). Predictors of posttraumatic

stress disorder and symptoms in adults: a meta-analysis. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 129(1), 52-73.

https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.129.1.52.

Pennebaker, J.W. (1997). Writing about emotional experiences as a therapeutic process.

Psychological Science, 8, 162-166.

Pearlin, L. I., & Bierman, A. (2013). Current issues and future directions in research into the

stress process. En C.S. Aneshensel, J.C. Phelan y A. Bierman, Handbook of the sociology of mental health (pp. 325-340). Dordrecht: Springer.

Posluszny, D. M., Edwards, R. P., Dew, M. A., & Baum, A. (2011). Perceived threat

and PTSD symptoms in women undergoing surgery for gynecologic cancer or benign conditions. Psych‐Oncology, 20(7), 783-787. https://doi.org/10.1002/pon.1771.

Rubin, D. C., & Feeling, N. (2013). Measuring the severity of negative and traumatic events.

Clinical Psychological Science, 1(4), 375-389.

https://doi.org/10.1177/2167702613483112.

Schacter, D. L. (1996). Searching for memory. The brain, the mind, and the past. New

York: Basic Books.

Sayed, S., Iacovello, B. M., & Charney, D. S. (2015). Risk factors for the Development

of Psychopathology Following Trauma. Curr Psychiatry Rep, 17(70), 1-7.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-015-0612-y.

Turk-Browne, N. B., Yi, D. J., & Chun, M. M. (2006). Linking implicit and explicit memory:

common encoding factors and shared representations. Neuron, 49(6), 917-927. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2006.01.030.

Thoits, P. (1983). Dimensions of Life Events That Influence Psychological Distress: An

Evaluation and Synthesis of the Literature. En H. Kaplan (Ed.), Psychosocial Stress. Trends in Theory and Research (pp. 33-103). Nueva York: Academic Press.

Tulving, E., Schacter, D. L., & Stark, H. A. (1982). Priming effects in word-fragment

completion are independent of recognition memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 8, 336-342.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.8.4.336.

Tulving, E. (1983). Elements of episodic memory. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Witte, K., Cameron, K. A., McKeon, J. K., Berkowitz, J. M. (1996). Predicting risk

behaviors: Development and validation of a diagnostic scale. Journal of Health Communication, 1(4), 317-342. https://doi.org/10.1080/108107396127988.

Detalles del artículo