Avances en Psicología Latinoamericana

ISSN-e: 2145-4515

ISSN: 1794-4724 

¿Qué es calidad de vida para un paciente con cáncer?

Ricardo Sánchez Pedrazaorcid, Fabio Alexander Sierra Matamorosorcid, Elena Martín Cardinal

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12804/revistas.urosario.edu.co/apl/a.3215

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Objetivo: Evaluar el concepto de calidad de vida desde la perspectiva del paciente con cáncer. Método: Se evaluaron 1029 pacientes con cáncer de cuello uterino, mama, próstata, estómago, colon-recto, y un grupo de pacientes menores de edad con diferentes tipos de cáncer, efectuando una pregunta abierta (¿Cómo definiría usted la calidad de vida?). El texto de las respuestas fue procesado para realizar análisis lexicográfico y análisis de correspondencias. Resultados: Las formas gráficas y los segmentos repetidos más frecuentes se relacionaron con conceptos de bienestar, salud, funcionalidad, buena alimentación, aspectos familiares y espirituales. Estos conceptos varían según el tipo de cáncer. El análisis de correspondencias sugiere tres dimensiones: cuidado, bienestar y aspectos sociofamiliares y alimentarios. Hubo asociación entre estas dimensiones y el tipo de cáncer (dimensión 1: pacientes pediátricos; dimensión 2: cáncer de mama, y dimensión 3: pacientes con cáncer de próstata). En el espacio multidimensional el cáncer pediátrico se diferencia de las otras localizaciones de la enfermedad. Conclusiones: El diseño de instrumentos para medir calidad de vida en pacientes con cáncer debe incorporar particularidades relacionadas con el diagnóstico específico de la enfermedad.

Palabras clave

calidad de vida; neoplasias; formación de concepto;


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