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Renata Giuliani Endres
Juliana Burges Sbicigo
Jerusa Fumagalli Salles
Cleonice Alves Bosa

El fenotipo ampliado del autismo (FAA) se ha definido como trazos subclínicos que configuran la expresión fenotípica de una susceptibilidad genética para el desarrollo del Trastorno del Espectro Autista (TEA). La literatura ha apuntado hacia la relación entre habilidades comunicativo-pragmáticas y autismo. Pero hay controversia en cuanto a la posibilidad de que esas habilidades constituyan una especificidad del FAA. Asimismo, investigaciones con parientes de primer grado de personas con TEA han fallado en establecer marcadores definitivos. Este estudio comparó el desempeño de padres y madres de niños con TEA (n=26) y sin TEA (n=26) en tareas de habilidades comunicativo-pragmáticas e indicadores de FAA. Fueron aplicados el Broader Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ) y subpruebas de la Batería Montreal de evaluación de la Comunicación (Batería MAC), además de la Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler Abreviada (WASI). Los resultados indicaron que los padres de niños con TEA presentaron mayor dificultad en lenguaje pragmático del BAPQ, aunque no hayan cumplido el criterio para FAA, y en las habilidades comunicativo-pragmáticas de discurso conversacional, prosodia emocional, interpretación de metáforas y de actos de habla indirectos. También se verificó que el grupo clínico presentó menor puntaje en ci verbal en relación con el grupo comparativo. Se concluyó que mayores dificultades en habilidades cognitivo-pragmáticas pueden ser un aspecto central y probablemente específico del FAA en familiares de niños con tea, así como dificultades en aspectos estructurales
del lenguaje, como inteligencia verbal. Estos resultados tienen implicaciones para comprender la posible influencia de factores sociocognitivos familiares en la génesis del autismo.

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Juliana Burges Sbicigo, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS)

Doutora em Psicologia pela Universidade Federal do Ri Grande do Sul. Pesquisadora associada ao Núcleo de Estudos em Neuropsicologia Cognitiva (NEUROCOG).

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