Contenido principal del artículo

Cindy Paola Hawkins Rada

Numerous pregnant Venezuelan women have fled Venezuela, given the health system crisis that has increased risk to their lives and their children. Thousands of them have arrived in Colombia in search of reproductive health care. Notwithstanding Colombia’s government efforts to provide some relief measures to the massive influx of Venezuelan migrants, pregnant women are not receiving the prenatal and postnatal care they need. One of the primary barriers to health care access is their immigration status and the health system structure regarding migrants. Therefore, this paper studies Colombia’s international human rights obligations concerning their immigration status and the right to reproductive health to conclude that government measures have been insufficient to meet these obligations.

Descargas

Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.
Hawkins Rada, C. P. (2021). Forced migration and reproductive rights: Pregnant women fleeing Venezuela. ACDI - Anuario Colombiano De Derecho Internacional, (15). https://doi.org/10.12804/revistas.urosario.edu.co/acdi/a.9188

Cindy Paola Hawkins Rada, University of Georgia

LL.M candidate.

Albaladejo, Angelika. “Contraceptive shortages mean Venezuela’s people face a sexual health emergency.” British Medical Journal 360, no. 1197 (March 23, 2018), https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.k1197.

American Convention on Human Rights, November 22, 1969, OAS Treaty Series No. 36, 1144 U.N.T.S. 123.

Cartagena Declaration on Refugees. November 22, 1984.

Cruz, Laura. “El doloroso parto de las venezolanas en Colombia” [The painful birth of Venezuelans in Colombia], El Espectador, January 14, 2020, https://www.elespectador.com/noticias/nacional/el-doloroso-parto-de-las-venezolanas-en-colombia-articulo-899757.

Fernández-Niño, Julián, Maylen Rojas, Ietza Bojorquez, Vanesa Giraldo, Rita Sobezyk, Jorge Acosta, Víctor Flórez, and David Rodríguez. “Situación de salud de gestantes migrantes venezolanas en el Caribe colombiano: primer reporte para una respuesta rápida en Salud Pública.” [Health situation of Venezuelan pregnant migrants in the Colombain Caribbean: First report for a public health response]. Revista de la Universidad Industrial de Santander 51 (2019): 208-2019, http://www.scielo.org.co/pdf/suis/v51n3/0121-0807-suis-51-03-208.pdf.

Fernández, Julián & Karen Orozco, “Migración venezolana en Colombia: retos en salud pública” [Venezuelan migration in Colombia: challenges in public health]. Revista de la Universidad Industrial de Santander 50 (2018): 5-6. https://revistas.uis.edu.co/index.php/revistasaluduis/article/view/7992.

Freier, Luisa & Nicolas Parent. “The Regional Response to the Venezuelan Exodus.” Current History 118 (2019): 56-61. https://www.academia.edu/39166992/The_Regional_Response_to_the_Venezuelan_Exodus.

Grattan, Steven. “‘Living a daily tragedy’: Venezuelans struggle to survive in Colombia.” The Guardian, November 1, 2019, https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2019/nov/01/living-a-daily-tragedy-venezuelans-struggle-to-survive-in-colombia.

Gómez, Diana, Gloria Gonzalez, and Claudia Tabares. “Embarazo y migración: percepción de mujeres gestantes venezolanas sobre acceso a servicios de salud, red-salud Armenia-Colombia” [Pregnancy and migration: perception of pregnant women in Venezuela about Access to health services, health network of Armenia, Colombia]. Specialist diss., Fundación Universitaria del Área Andina, 2019.

Health Ministry of Colombia. “Afiliación al sistema general de seguridad social en salud de extranjeros y colombianos retornados” [Affiliation to the general social security system of foreigners and returning Colombians]. Minsalud. Accessed May 1, 2020, https://www.minsalud.gov.co/proteccionsocial/Paginas/afiliacion-al-sistema-de-seguridad-social-en-salud-de-extranjeros-y-colombianos-retornados.aspx.

Health Ministry of Colombia. “Plan de respuesta del sector salud al fenómeno migratorio.” [Response plan by the health sector to the migratory phenomenon], Minsalud. Accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.minsalud.gov.co/sites/rid/Lists/BibliotecaDigital/RIDE/DE/COM/plan-respuesta-salud-migrantes.pdf.

Henao, Luisa. “Calidad de vida percibida de las madres gestantes venezolanas, en la ciudad de Medellín, durante el periodo de 2018-2019” [Perceived quality of life of Venezuelan pregnant mothers, in the city of Medellín (Colombia), during 2018-2019]. Revista Cies 11 (2020): 50-66. http://www.escolme.edu.co/revista/index.php/cies/article/view/280.

Hodal, Kate. “UN urged to declare full-sclae crisis in Venezuela as health system ‘collapses’.” The Guardian, April 5, 2019, https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2019/apr/05/un-urged-to-declare-full-scale-crisis-in-venezuela-as-health-system-collapses.

Human Rights Watch (HRW). “Venezuela: numbers highlight health crisis.” HRW.ORG, November 15, 2018, https://www.hrw.org/news/2018/11/15/venezuela-numbers-highlight-health-crisis.

Human Rights Watch (HRW) & Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (JHSPH). “Venezuela’s Humanitarian Emergency.” (2019). https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/report_pdf/venezuela0419_web.pdf.

Inter-American Commission of Human Rights (IACHR). Andrea Mortlock v. United States, Case 12.534, Report No. 63/08, July 25, 2008.

Inter-American Commission of Human Rights (IACHR). “Annual Report of 1981-1982.” OEA/Ser.L/V/ll.57 Doc. 6 rev.1, September 20, 1982. Accessed May 2, 2020, https://www.acnur.org/fileadmin/Documentos/BDL/2001/4395.pdf.

Inter-American Commission of Human Rights (IACHR). “Human Mobility: Inter-American Standards.” OEA/Ser.L/V/II., Doc. 46/15, December 31, 2015. http://www.oas.org/en/iachr/reports/pdfs/HumanMobility.pdf.

Inter-American Commission of Human Rigths (IACHR). “Maternidad Concepción Palacios Hospital regarding Venezuela.” Precautionary Measure No. 150-19, Res. 13/2019 (March 18, 2019), https://www.oas.org/es/cidh/decisiones/pdf/2019/13-19MC150-19-VE.pdf.

Inter-American Commission of Human Rights (IACHR). National Association of ExEmployees of the Peruvian Social Security Institute et al. V. Perú, , Case 12.670, Report No. 38/09, March 27, 2009.

Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACtHR). Acevedo Buendía and others v. Peru, Preliminary Exceptions, Merits, Reparations, and Costs, Judgement, (Ser. C) No. 210, July 1, 2009.

Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACtHR). Artavia Murillo and others (“In Vitro Fertilization”) v. Costa Rica, Preliminary Exceptions, Merits, Reparations, and Costs, Judgment, (Ser. C) No. 257, November 28, 2012.

Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACtHR). Case of the “Five Pensioners” v. Peru, Merits, Reparations, and Costs, Judgement, (Ser. C) No. 98, February 28, 2003.

Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACtHR). Cuscul Pivaral and others v. Guatemala, Preliminary Exceptions, Merits, Reparations, and Costs, Judgement, (Ser. C) No. 359, August 23, 2018.

Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACtHR). González and others (“Cotton Field”) v. México. Preliminary Exceptions, Merits, Reparations, and Costs, Judgement, (Ser. C) No. 205 November 16, 2009.

Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACtHR). Hernández v. Argentina, Preliminary Exceptions, Merits, Reparations, and Costs, Judgment, (Ser. C) No. 395, November 22, 2019.

Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACtHR). I.V. v. Bolivia, Preliminary Exception, Merits, Reparations, and Costs, Judgment, (Ser. C) No. 329, November 30, 2016.

Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACtHR). Poblete Vilches and others v. Chile, Merits, Reparations, and Costs, Judgment, (Ser. C) No. 349, March 8, 2018.

Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACtHR). “Rights and Guarantees of Children in the Context of Migration and/or in need of International Protection.” Advisory Opinion, OC-21/14, (Ser. A) No. 21, August 19, 2014.

Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACtHR). Río Negro Massacres v. Guatemala, Merits, Reparations, and Costs, Judgment, (Ser. C) No. 250, September 4, 2012.

International Conference on Central American Refugees. “Principles and criteria for protection and assistance of Central American refugees, repatriates, and displaced people in Latin America.” May 29-31, 1989, https://www.refworld.org/docid/4370ca8b4.html.

International Committee of the Red Cross. “Commentary of 1987 on the Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts (Protocol II), 8 June 1977.” Commentary of 1987.

Koechlin, José & Joaquín Eguren, “El éxodo venezolano: entre el exilio y la emigración” [The Venezuelan exodus: between exile and emigration], OBIMID 43 (2018). http://repositorio.uarm.edu.pe/bitstream/UNIARM/2031/1/El%20%C3%A9xodo%20venezolano%20%20entre%20el%20exilio%20y%20la%20emigraci%C3%B3n.pdf#page=21.

Marín, Nicolás. “¿Qué pasa en Colombia con las venezolanas embarazadas?” El Espectador, July 21, 2018, https://www.elespectador.com/noticias/el-mundo/que-pasa-en-colombia-con-las-venezolanas-embarazadas-articulo-801453.

Martinez, Marta. “Inside the Colombian ‘war hospital’ treating Venezuela’s pregnancy crisis.” The New Humanitarian, November 27, 2019, https://www.thenewhumanitarian.org/news-feature/2019/11/27/Venezuela-Colombia-pregnant-women-birth-reproductive-rights-migration-Cucuta-maternal-care-migrants-refugees.

Migración Colombia (Colomabian Inmigration Agency). “Historical statistics.” Migración Colombia, August 1, 2019, https://www.migracioncolombia.gov.co/infografias/231-infografias-2019/total-de-venezolanos-en-colombia-corte-a-30-junio-de-2019.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Colombia. Res. No. 5797/2017, July 25, 2017.

Moloney, Anastasia. “Desperate Venezuelan migrants face homelessness as Colombia’s camp closes.” Reuters, October 24, 2018, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-colombia-venezuela-migrants-feature/desperate-venezuelan-migrants-face-homelessness-as-colombias-camp-closes-idUSKCN1MY2GF.

Notimérica. “Cientos de mujeres y adolescentes venezolanas embarazadas cruzan a Colombia en busca de atención médica” [Hundreds of Venezuelan women and teenage women cross to Colombia seeking medical services]. Notimérica, July 10, 2019, https://www.notimerica.com/sociedad/noticia-cientos-mujeres-adolescentes-venezolanas-embarazadas-cruzan-colombia-busca-atencion-medica-20190710192053.html.

Page, Kathleen R., Shannon Doocy, Feliciano Reyna, Julio Castro, Paul Spiegel, and Chris Beyrer. “Venezuela’s public health crisis: a regional emergency.” The Lancet 393, no. 10177 (April 2019): 1254-1260. https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(19)30344-7/fulltext.

Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) & World Health Organization (WHO). “Response for effective technical coordination in Venezuela and neighboring countries.” 162th Session of the Executive Committee, CE162/INF/22, June 18-22, 2018. https://www.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_docman&view=download&category_slug=162-en-9841&alias=45491-ce162-inf-22-e-paho-tc-respond-491&Itemid=270&lang=en.

Parra, Oscar. “La protección del derecho a la salud a través de casos contenciosos ante el sistema interamericano de derechos humanos” [Protection of the right to health through contentious cases before the Inter-American system of human rights]. Accessed April 30, 2020, https://www.corteidh.or.cr/tablas/r32459.pdf.

Romo, Alejandra. “Pregnant women fleeing the lack of health care in Venezuela.” United Nation High Commissioner for Refugees, July 23, 2019, https://www.acnur.org/noticias/historia/2019/7/5d374bcb4/mujeres-embarazadas-huyen-de-la-falta-de-atencion-medica-en-venezuela.html.

Rotunno, Marco. “Venezuelans living in the streets find safety at new reception center in Colombia.” UNHCR, April 15, 2019, available at https://www.unhcr.org/news/stories/2019/4/5cb48f934/venezuelans-living-streets-find-safety-new-reception-centre-colombia.html.

Save the Children. “Hundreds of heavily pregnant Venezuelan women seek treatment at Save the Children colombian border clinic.” Save the Children, July 10, 2019, https://www.savethechildren.net/news/hundreds-heavily-pregnant-venezuelan-women-seek-treatment-save-children-colombian-border-clinic.

Schreiber, Melody. “Research are surprised by the magnitude of Venezuela’s health crisis.” npr.org. April 5, 2019. Accessed May 31, 2020, https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2019/04/05/709969632/researchers-are-surprised-by-the-magnitude-of-venezuelas-health-crisis.

United Nations. “Five reasons migration is a feminist issue.” United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), April 9, 2018, https://www.unfpa.org/news/five-reasons-migration-feminist-issue.

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. “World population prospects 2019.” UN Population. Accessed April 27, 2020, https://population.un.org/wpp/Publications/Files/WPP2019_DataBooklet.pdf.

United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR). “Human rights violations in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela: a downward spiral with no end in sight.” OHCHR, June 2018, https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Countries/VE/VenezuelaReport2018_EN.pdf.

United Nations Hight Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). “Department of International Protection Experts Meetings.” UNHCR, February 19, 2014, https://www.unhcr.org/protection/expert/3e5f78bc4/expert-meetings.html.

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). “Summary conclusions on the Interpretation of the extended refugee definition contained in the 1984 Cartagena Declaration on Refugees.” Expert roundtable, Montevideo (Uruguay), October 15-16, 2013, https://www.unhcr.org/53bd4d0c9.pdf.

Van Praag, Oriana. “Understanding the Venezuelan refugee crisis.” Wilson Center, September 13, 2019, https://www.wilsoncenter.org/article/understanding-the-venezuelan-refugee-crisis.

Venezuelan Health Ministry. “Summery of the national epidemiologic situation.” OVSALUD.ORG, December 23-29, 2012. https://www.ovsalud.org/descargas/publicaciones/documentos-oficiales/Boletin-Epidemiologico-2012.pdf.

World Bank Open Data. “Indicator of pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%) – Venezuela.” World Bank. Accessed March 9, 2020, https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS?end=2013&locations=VE&start=2000&view=chart.

Detalles del artículo