ACDI - Anuario Colombiano de Derecho Internacional

ISSN-e: 2145-4493

ISSN: 2027-1131 

Derecho ambiental internacional para el siglo xxi: la constitucionalización del derecho a un medio ambiente sano en la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos Opinión Consultiva número 23

Mónica Feria-Tinta, Simon C. Milnes

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12804/revistas.urosario.edu.co/acdi/a.7568
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Resumen


Este artículo analiza la reciente Opinión Consultiva de la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos sobre el Medio Ambiente y los Derechos Humanos y sostiene que constituye un hito que reorienta efectivamente el derecho ambiental internacional. El artículo está dividido como sigue: En primer lugar, analiza los aspectos más destacados de la Opinión Consultiva, entre otros (1) El derecho a un medio ambiente sano como derecho vinculante; (2) La Opinión Consultiva como un hito en el desarrollo gradual de la jurisprudencia internacional sobre las obligaciones de derechos humanos transfronterizas (o “diagonales”) (es decir, la posibilidad de que los individuos que no están bajo la jurisdicción territorial del Estado presentendemandas de derechos humanos cuya responsabilidad internacional por daños ambientales se invoca). En segundo lugar, el artículo contextualiza la Opinión Consultiva al analizar lo que consideramos cuatro vectores claves que afectan actualmente la trayectoria del desarrollo en curso del derecho ambiental internacional, y cómo los avances logrados en la Opinión Consultiva encajan con esos desarrollos. En tercer lugar, coloca la Opinión Consultiva en el contexto más amplio de los desarrollos que se dirigen hacia una reorientación necesaria en el derecho ambiental internacional, en particular: la integración (o des-fragmentación) del derecho internacional, la operacionalización de los principios ambientales en las normas legales a nivel práctico y un enfoque en remedios. Se argumenta que en tanto que el mundo experimenta la presión por normas de derecho medioambiental más efectivas y con consecuencias legales si son violadas, ejemplos de pensamientos más sofisticados e innovadores en materia de derecho del medio ambiente actual, vienen emanando de los países del hemisferio sur, como lo confirma la Opinión Consultiva.

Palabras clave


derecho del medioambiente, derecho a un ambiente sano, obligaciones diagonales, Opinión Consultiva 23, Corte Inter-Americana de Derechos Humanos, Resolución de Conflictos Internacionales, derecho de inversión, de-fragmentación del derecho internacional

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