DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12804/apl34.2.2016.04

Desarrollo de la lectura y la escritura de palabras con ortografía compleja: sus predictores

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Marina Valeria Ferroni, Beatriz Diuk, Milagros Mena

Resumen


El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar el desarrollo de las habilidades de lectura y escritura de palabras con ortografía compleja así como explorar qué habilidades predicen dichos procesos. Para ello, se realizó un estudio longitudinal de 1er a 3er grado con 46 sujetos hispanohablantes. A fin de primer y segundo grado se administraron pruebas de lectura y escritura de palabras ortográficamente complejas y pruebas de denominación rápida, conciencia fonológica, atención visual, conocimiento de las correspondencias y precisión y fluidez en el trazado de las letras. A fin de tercer grado se volvió a administrar la prueba de lectura y escritura de palabras con ortografía compleja.

Los resultados de las regresiones mostraron que el conocimiento de las letras y la medida de conciencia fonológica predijeron la escritura y la lectura a fin de primer grado mientras que, más avanzado el desarrollo, los predictores fueron las habilidades de denominación rápida y fluidez en el trazado de las letras.

Por otro lado, los resultados de las pruebas de lectura y escritura mostraron una asincronía en el desarrollo de estas habilidades. Si bien el desempeño fue mejorando en cada momento evaluado, los puntajes en la prueba de escritura de palabras ortográficamente complejas fue significativamente inferior al obtenido para la lectura. Este hecho parecería sugerir que, si bien los niños van formando representaciones ortográficas de las palabras con las cuales van teniendo sucesivos encuentros (Share, 1999; 2008), las representaciones formadas pueden ser de diferente calidad (Perfetti, 1992): representaciones con características no especificadas en su totalidad que permitirían una lectura precisa y rápida y representaciones de óptima calidad que permiten la escritura convencional de palabras en español.


Palabras clave


lectura; escritura; ortografía; fonología; predictores

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