ACDI - Anuario Colombiano de Derecho Internacional

ISSN-e: 2145-4493

ISSN: 2027-1131 

Protección del medio ambiente y arbitraje de inversión: ¿yin y yang?

Laurence Boisson de Chazournes

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12804/revistas.urosario.edu.co/acdi/a.5296
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Resumen


Este documento analiza las relaciones entre el derecho internacional del medio ambiente y el derecho internacional de inversión. Así mismo, discute las herramientas existentes y los mecanismos procesales disponibles ante las cortes y los tribunales internacionales para promover el cumplimiento de los principios emergentes, las normas y los compromisos relacionados con la sostenibilidad. Este artículo considera la forma en que las cortes y los tribunales internacionales han recurrido a la protección del medio ambiente mediante la interpretación de tratados. También, evalúa las diferentes formas a que hace referencia la protección del medio ambiente en tratados de inversión bilateral. Finalmente, el texto examina los dispositivos procesales que podrían ser usados para tener en cuenta y tratar las consideraciones medioambientales dentro del marco de referencia de la inversión.


Palabras clave


Protección del medio ambiente, poder regulador del Estado, excepciones, Tratado de Interpretación Bilateral (TBI) estándar, responsabilidad social corporativa, evaluación del impacto ambiental, expertos.

Referencias


Books

Newcombe, A. & Paradell, L., Law and Practice of Investment Treaties, (Kluwer Law International, 2009).

Shigeta, Y., International Judicial Control of Environmental Protection: Standard Setting, Compliance Control and the Development of International Environmental Law by the International Judiciary, (Kluwer Law International, 2010).

Articles

Boisson de Chazournes, L., “Rules of Interpretation and Investment Ar-bitration”, in Meg Kinnear et al., eds., Building International Investment Law: The First 50 Years of ICSID, (Kluwer Law International, 2015).

Boisson de Chazournes, L., “Standards and Guidelines: Some Interface with Private Investments”, in Tullio Treves, Francesco Seatzu and Seline Trevisanut eds., Foreign Investment, International Law and Common Concerns, Routledge, 2013.

Boyle, A., “Gabčíkovo-Nagymaros Case: New Law in Old Bottles”, Year-book of International Environmental Law 8, 1997, 13-20.

Burke White, W. & von Staden, A., “Investment Protection in Extraordinary Times: The Interpretation of Non-Precluded Measure Provisions in Bilateral Investment Treaties”, Virginia Journal of International Law, 2008, 48 (2), 307.

Mbengue, M., “The Role of Experts Before the International Court of Justice: The Whaling in the Antarctic Case”, Questions of International Law: Zoom-In 14, 2015, 3-12.

Zhan, J., “Investment policies for sustainable development: addressing policy challenges in a new investment landscape”, in Roberto Echan-di and Pierre Sauvé eds., Prospects in International Investment Law and Policy, Cambridge University Press, 2013.

Jurisprudence

Award in the Arbitration Regarding the Iron Rhine Railway (Kingdom of Belgium/Kingdom of the Netherlands), Award, 24 May 2005, Report of International Arbitral Awards, Vol. XXVII, pp. 35-125.

Case Concerning Pulp Mills on the River Uruguay (Argentina v. Uruguay), ICJ Reports 2010.

Case Concerning the Gabčíkovo-Nagymaros Project (Hungary/Slovakia), ICJ Reports 1997.

Compañía del Desarrollo de Santa Elena, S.A. v. The Republic of Costa Rica (ICSID Case No. ARB/96/1), Final Award, 17 February 2000.

Construction of a Road in Costa Rica along the San Juan River (Nicaragua v. Costa Rica), Judgment, 16 December 2015.

El Paso Energy International Company v. The Argentine Republic (ICSID Case No. ARB/03/15), 31 October 2011.

Indus Waters Kishenganga Arbitration (Pakistan v. India), Partial Award (PCA 2013).

Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons, Advisory

Opinion, ICJ Reports 1996.

Marvin Feldman v Mexico (ICSID Case No. ARB(AF)/99/1), Award, 16 December 2002.

MTD Equity Sdn. Bhd. and MTD Chile S.A. v. Republic of Chile (ICSID Case No. ARB/01/7), Decision on Annulment, 21 March 2007.

Perenco Ecuador Ltd. v. The Republic of Ecuador and Empresa Estatal Petróleos del Ecuador (Petroecuador) (ICSID Case No. ARB/08/6), Interim Decision on the Environmental Counterclaim, 11 August 2015.

Pulp Mills on the River Uruguay (Argentina v. Uruguay), ICJ Reports 2010.

Suez, Sociedad General de Aguas de Barcelona S.A. and Vivendi Universal S.A. v. The Argentine Republic (ICSID Case No.

ARB/03/19), Decision on Liability, 30 July 2010, Exhibit CLA-79. United States - Import Prohibition of Certain Shrimp and Shrimp Pro-ducts WT/DS58/AB/R (1998).

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United States - Standards for Reformulated and Conventional Gasoline, WT/DS2 (1996).

Whaling in the Antarctic (Australia v. Japan), ICJ Report, 2014.

Documents/Bilateral Investment Treaties

Acordo de cooperacão e facilitacão de investimentos entre o governo da república federativa do Brasil e o governo da república de Moçam-bique, 2015, available at: http://investmentpolicyhub.unctad.org/Download/TreatyFile/3352, consulted on 15 February 2016.

Agreement between Canada and the Slovak Republic for the Promotion and the Protection of Investments, 20 July 2010, available at http://investmentpolicyhub.unctad.org/Download/TreatyFile/634, con-sulted on 15 February 2016.

Agreement between the Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union and the Government of the Republic of Mozambique on the Reciprocal Promotion and Protection of Investment, 18 July 2006, available at http://investmentpolicyhub.unctad.org/Download/TreatyFile/393, consulted on 15 February 2016.

Agreement Between the Government of Canada and the Government of the Republic of Benin for the Promotion and Reciprocal Protection of Investments, 9 January 2013, available at: http://investmentpo-licyhub.unctad.org/IIA/country/35/treaty/563, consulted on 14 February 2016.

Agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of the People’s Republic of China for the Promotion and Reciprocal Protection of Investments, 9 September 2012, http://investment-policyhub.unctad.org/IIA/country/42/treaty/778, consulted on 14 February 2016.

Agreement Between the Government of Canada and the Government of the People’s Republic of China for the Promotion and Reciprocal Protection of Investments, 9 September 2012, http://investmen-tpolicyhub.unctad.org/IIA/country/42/treaty/778, consulted on 14 February 2016.

Agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of the Republic of Benin for the Promotion and Reciprocal Protection of Investments, 9 January 2013, available at http://investmentpo-licyhub.unctad.org/Download/TreatyFile/438, consulted on 16 February 16 2016.

Agreement between the Government of Romania and the Government of Canada for the Promotion and Reciprocal Protection of Inves-tments, 8 May 2009, available at http://investmentpolicyhub.unctad. org/Download/TreatyFile/3503, consulted on 26 February 2016.

Annex 1 “Cooperation on Investment” of the SADC Protocol on Finance and Investment, 18 August 2006, available at http://www.sadc.int/files/4213/5332/6872/Protocol_on_Finance__Investment2006. pdf, consulted on 15 February 2016.

EU-Korea FTA, 16 September 2010, available at http://investmentpoli-

cyhub.unctad.org/Download/TreatyFile/2602, consulted on 15 February 2016.

NAFTA Agreement, Chapter 11, Article 11.10, available at https://ustr.gov/sites/default/files/uploads/agreements/fta/korus/asset_upload_fi-le587_12710.pdf, consulted on 25 February 2016. Protocol of the Agreement between the Swiss Confederation and the United Mexican States on the Promotion and Reciprocal Protec-tion of Investments, 10 July 1995, available at http://investmen-tpolicyhub.unctad.org/Download/TreatyFile/2006, consulted on 15 February 2016.

SADC Model BIT, 2012, available at http://www.iisd.org/itn/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/sadc-model-bit-template-final.pdf, consulted on 16 February 2016.

Treaty between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Republic of Rwanda Concerning the Encou-ragement and Reciprocal Protection of Investment, 19 February 2008, available at: http://go.usa.gov/3pmXd, consulted on 14 February 2016.

UNCTAD Investment Policy Framework for Sustainable Development, Principles for Investment Policy Making (2015), available at http://unctad.org/en/PublicationsLibrary/diaepcb2015d5_en.pdf, con-sulted on 15 February 2016

UNCTAD World Investment Report: Investing in a Low-Carbon Economy (UNCTAD/WIR/2010)


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