ACDI - Anuario Colombiano de Derecho Internacional

ISSN-e: 2145-4493

ISSN: 2027-1131 

Ley de libre determinación moderna y la 'cuarta opción': Ley internacional y de Estados Unidos

Javier J. Rúa-Jovet

Texto completo:

PDF
Enviar este artículo (Es necesario iniciar sesión)
Escanee aquí para descargar

Resumen


Conforme a las resoluciones de la ONU 1514 y 1541 (1960), usualmente se discuten solo tres formas de autodeterminación de los pueblos: la independencia, la integración y la libre asociación. En 1970, la Resolución 2625 amplió ese lenguaje, añadiendo una cuarta vía: “La adquisición de cualquier otra condición política libremente decidida por un pueblo”. La Resolución 2625 y resoluciones posteriores plantean un marco de libertad de petición y negociación que no limita la búsqueda de soluciones razonables y realistas a las aspiraciones legítimas de progreso político, cultural y económico de un pueblo.

La monografía también discute estas normas desde la perspectiva del Derecho Constitucional de los Estados Unidos, concluyendo que ese corpus jurisprudencial también reconoce y permite diversas formas de organización política “soberana” más allá de los estados de la Unión, pueblos o jurisdicciones con diversos grados de autonomía, desde las tribus o naciones indias, hasta los Estados libres asociados, consistentes con el espíritu y letra de la Resolución 2625 y su progenie.


Palabras clave


Derecho de autodeterminación; descolonización; soberanía inherente; pueblos; Derecho Constitucional de Estados Unidos; federalismo

Referencias


Multilateral treaties

Statute of the International Court of Justice, art. 38 §1(b) Stat. I.C.J., 76 Y.B.U.N. 1052.

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 16 Dec. 1966, 999, U.N.T.S. 171.

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 16 Dec. 1966, 993 U.N.T.S. 3.

International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, G.A. Res. 2106 A (XX), 660 U.N.T.S. 195 (1969).

Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, UN Doc. A/CONF.39/27 (1969), 1155 U.N.T.S. 331.

UN Security Council Resolutions and related instruments

Trusteeship Council Resolution 2183 (LIII), S/18124 (1986) Entry into force of new status agreements, termination of Trusteeship Agreement.

Security Council Resolution 683, S/RES/683 (1990) Entry into force of new status agreements for Federated States of Micronesia, the Marshall Islands and the Northern Mariana Islands, thus ending the Trusteeship.

Security Council Resolution 1244, S/Res/1244 (1999) Authorizing international civil and military presence in Kosovo and established the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK).

UN General Assembly and regional resolutions

Universal Declaration of Human Rights, G.A. Res. 217 A (III) (1948). Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, G.A. Res. 1514 (XV), 15 UN GAOR, 15th Sess., Supp. Nº 16, UN Doc. A/4684 (1960).

Principles which should guide Members in determining whether or not an obligation exists to transmit the information called for under article 73 e of the Charter, G.A. Res. 1541 (XV), UN GAOR, 15th Sess., Supp. Nº 16 at 29, UN Doc. A/4651 (1960).

Permanent sovereignty over natural resources, G.A. Res. 1803 (XVII), 17 UN GAOR Supp. (Nº 17) at 15, UN Doc. A/5217 (1962).

Declaration on Principles of International Law Concerning Friendly Relations and Cooperation among States in accordance with the Charter, G.A. Res. 2625 (XXV), UN GAOR, 25th Sess., Supp. Nº 28, at 121, UN Doc. A/8028 (1970).

Plan of the Action for the Full Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, G.A. Res. 35/118, 11 December 1980.

Vienna Declaration and Program of Action, UN Doc. A/CONF. 157/23 (1993).

A/RES/50/133, Support by the United Nations System of the Efforts of Governments to Promote and Consolidate New or Restored Democracies.

A/RES/55/2, Millennium Declaration.

A/RES/61/34, Report of the International Law Commission on the work of its fifty-eighth session.

A/RES/61/39, The rule of law at the national and international levels.

A/RES/61/166, Promotion of equitable and mutually respectful dialogue on human rights.

A/RES/61/169, The right to development.

A/RES/63/165, The right of the Palestinian people to self-determination.

A/RES/63/189, Promotion of a democratic and equitable international order.

A/RES/3237, PLO Observer status.

A/RES/43/160, Designation of Palestine.

A/RES/43/177, Right to circulate communications without intermediary.

A/RES/52/250, Right to participate in general debate and additional rights.

A/RES/64/3, IOC observer status.

Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, Final Act of Helsinki, 1 August 1975, 14 I.L.M. 1398.

Special Committee on Decolonization 4th Meeting, 6/06/2002, GA/COL/3064.

Final Washington DC Declaration of the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly and the Resolutions Adopted at the Fourteenth Annual Session (2005), Chapter III, Section 58.

International judicial decisions

Aaland Islands Case (1920) LNOJ Special Supp Nº 3.

Greco-Bulgarian “Communities”, advisory opinion Nº 17, 1930 P.C.I.J. (ser. B) Nº 30, at 21 (1930).

Fisheries Case (United Kingdom v. Norway), ICJ Reports 131 (1951).

Namibia, ICJ Reports 16 (1971).

Western Sahara, advisory opinion, ICJ Reports 32 (1975).

East Timor, ICJ Reports 90 (1995).

Accordance with International Law of the Unilateral Declaration of Independence by the Provisional Institutions of Self-Government of Kosovo, advisory opinion, ICJ Reports (22/07/2010).

Other international sources

Gros, Héctor. Implementation of United Nations resolutions relating to the right of peoples under colonial and alien domination to self-determination. A study prepared by a special rapporteur (1981), E/CN.4/Sub.2/405.

Secretariat of the International Commission of Jurists. The Events in East Pakistan, 8 International Commission of Jurists Review 44 (1972).

The implementation of the right to self-determination as a contribution to conflict prevention. Report of Unesco International Conference of Experts, Barcelona, November 1998.

Books and treatises

Anaya, James. Indigenous peoples in International Law (1996).

Berríos, Rubén et al. Puerto Rico. Nación independiente, imperativo del siglo XXI (2010).

Cassese, Antonio. Self-determination of peoples: a legal appraisal (1995).

Danspeckgruber, Wolfgang. The self-determination of peoples: community, nation and State in an interdependent world. 367 (2002).

Halperin, Morton; Scheffer, David & Small, Patricia. Self-determination in the new world order. 47 (1992).

Igarashi, Masahiro. Associated statehood in International Law (2002).

McWhinney, Edward. Self-determination of peoples and plural-ethnic states in contemporary International Law: failed States, nation-building and the alternative, federal option. 133 (2007).

Trías, José. Puerto Rico: the trials of the oldest colony in the world (1997).

Tribe, Laurence. American Constitutional Law (1988).

Articles

Anaya, James. A contemporary definition of the international norm of selfdetermination, 3 Transnat’l L. & Contemp. Probs. 131 (1993).

Bacon, Selden. How the tenth amendment affected the fifth article of the Constitution, 16 Va. L. Rev. 771 (1930).

Brauer, Jurgen & Haywood, Robert. Non-state sovereign entrepreneurs and nonterritorial sovereign organizations. United Nations University-World Institute for Development Economics Research (2010).

Corbin, Carlyle. Criteria for the cessation of transmission of information under article 73(e), Overseas Territories Report, V(5), August 2006.

Cox-Alomar, Rafael. Britain’s withdrawal from the Eastern Caribbean 1965- 1967: a reappraisal, The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 31(3) at 74 (2003).

Daes, Erica-Irene. Striving for self-determination for indigenous peoples. In: In pursuit of the right of self-determination: collected papers and proceedings of the First International Conference on the Right to Self-Determination & the United Nations. Geneva 2000, at 50 (2001).

Duffy, Christina. United States: American expansion and territorial deannexation, 72 Chi. L. Rev. 797 (1993).

Evans, Alex; Jones, Bruce & Steven, David. Confronting the long crisis of globalization: risk resilience and the international order, Brookings/ CIC (2009).

Fletcher, Matthew. Preconstitutional federal power, 82 Tul. L. Rev. 509 (2007).

Hannum, Hurst. Rethinking self-determination, 34 Va. J. Int’l L. 10 (2005).

Hannum, Hurst & Lillich, Richard. The concept of autonomy in International Law, 74 AJIL 858 (1980).

Horey, Joseph. The right of self-government in the commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, 4 Asian-Pac L & Policy J 180 (2003).

Johnson. Toward self-determination - a reappraisal as reflected in the Declaration on Friendly Relations, 3 Georgia J.I.C.L. 149 (1973).

McElroy, Jerome & Pearce, Kara. The advantages of political affiliation: dependent and independent small island profiles, The Round Table, The Commonwealth Journal of International Affairs, 95(386), 529 (2006).

Noutcheva, Gergana; Tocci, Nathalie; Coppieters, Bruno; Kovziridze, Tamara; Emerson, Michael & Huysseune, Michel. Europeanization and secessionist conflicts: concepts and theories, Journal of Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe (2004).

Pellet, Alain. The opinions of the Badinter Arbitration Committee, a second breath for self-determination of peoples, 3 EJIL 178 (1992).

Sohn, Louis. The new International Law: protection of rights of individuals rather than States, 32 Am. U. L. Rev. 16 (1982).

Sullivan, Jake. The tenth amendment and local government, 112 Yale L.J. 1935 (2003).

Swaine, Edward. Negotiating federalism: State bargaining and the dormant treaty power, 9 Duke L.J. 1127 (2000).

Vogel, Howard. Reframing rights from the ground up: the contribution of the new law of self-determination to recovering the principle of sociability on the way to a relational theory of international human rights, 20 Temp. Intl & Comp. L.J. 443 (2006).

Williams, Paul & Jannotti, Francesca. Earned sovereignty: bridging the gap between sovereignty and self-determination, 40 Stan J. Int’l L. 347 (2004).

Other municipal sources (United States of America)

United States Declaration of Independence (1776).

Constitution of the United States of America (1787).

American Law Institute, 1 Restatement (Third) of the Foreign Relations Law of the United States 145 (1987).

Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (ISDEA), as amended, 25 U.S.C. 450, et seq.

DC House Voting Rights Act, H.R.157/S.160.

Municipal judicial decisions (United States of America)

Green v. Biddle, 21 U.S. (8 Wheat.) 1 (1823).

Poole v. Fleeger, 36 U.S. (11 Pet.) 185 (1837).

Holmes v. Jennison, 14 Pet. 540 (1840).

Virginia v. West Virginia, 78 U.S. 39 (1878).

Virginia v. Tennessee, 148 U.S. 503 (1893).

The Paquete Habana, 175 U.S. 677 (1900).

United States v. Curtiss-Wright Export Corp., 299 U.S. 304 (1936).

United Public Workers v. Mitchell, 330 U.S. 75 (1947).

Griswold v. Connecticut, 381 U.S. 479 (1965).

In re Winship, 397 U.S. 358 (1970).

Examining Board v. Flores de Otero, 426 U.S. 572 (1976).

United States Steel Corp. v. Multistate Tax Comm’n, 434 U.S. 452 (1978). United States v. Wheeler, 435 U.S. 313 (1978).

Washington v. Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, 447 U.S. 134 (1980).

Filártiga v. Pena-Irala, 630 F.2d 876 (1980).

Merrion v. Jicarilla Apache Tribe, 455 U.S. 130 (1982).

Tel-Oren v. Libyan Arab Republic, 726 F.2d 774 (1984).

National Farmers Union Insurance v. Crow Tribe of Indians, 471 U.S. 845 (1985).

Dun & Bradstreet v. Greenmoss Builders, 472 U.S. 749 (1985).

Halliburton Co. v. Commissioner, 93 T.C. 758 (1989).

Continental Illinois Corp. v. Commissioner, 94 T.C. 165 (1990).

United States v. Verdugo-Urquidez, 494 U.S. 259 (1990).

Morgan Guaranty Trust Co. v. Republic of Palau, 924 F.2d 1237 (1991).

Alden v. Maine, 527 U.S. 706 (1999).

Ortiz-Feliciano v. Toledo-Davila, 175 F.3d 37, (1st Cir. 1999).

United States v. Yousef, 327 F.3d 56 (2003).

Yousef v. United States, 540 U.S. 933 (2005).

Kansas v. Marsh, 126 S. Ct. 2516 (2006).

Rodríguez v. P.R. Fed. Affairs Admin., 435 F.3d 378, 549 U.S. 812 (2006).

District of Columbia v. Heller, 128 S. Ct. 2783 (2008).

Boumediene v. Bush, 553 U.S. 723 (2008).


El archivo PDF seleccionado se debe cargar aquí si su navegador tiene instalado un módulo de lectura de PDF (por ejemplo, una versión reciente de Adobe Acrobat Reader).

Si desea más información sobre cómo imprimir, guardar y trabajar con PDFs, Highwire Press le proporciona una guía útil de Preguntas frecuentes sobre PDFs.

Por otro lado, puede descargar el PDF directamente a su ordenador donde podrá abrirlo con un lector de PDF. Para descargar el PDF, haga clic en el enlace anterior.


Métricas