15 tips to take Notes while reading
|15 tips to take Notes while reading
DOC: 15 practical tips to help you take notes while reading. Simple, straight to the point, and effective.|
16 años de la circunscripción nacional para Senado en Colombia: ¿dónde está el espacio de representación nacional?
|16 años de la circunscripción nacional para Senado en Colombia: ¿dónde está el espacio de representación nacional?
Flórez Henao, Javier Andrés|
16/6-idiotype expressing antibodies induce brain inflammation and cognitive impairment in mice: the mosaic of central nervous system involvement in lupus
|16/6-idiotype expressing antibodies induce brain inflammation and cognitive impairment in mice: the mosaic of central nervous system involvement in lupus
Shaye, Kivity; Katzav, Aviva; Arango, Maria Teresa
Background: The 16/6-idiotype (16/6-Id) of the human anti-DNA antibody was found to induce experimental lupus in naive mice, manifested by production of autoantibodies, leukopenia and elevated inflammatory markers, as well as kidney and brain involvement. We assessed behavior and brain pathology of naive mice injected intracerebra-ventricularly (ICV) with the 16/6-Id antibody.
Methods: C3H female mice were injected ICV to the right hemisphere with the human 16/6-Id antibody or commercial human IgG antibodies (control). The mice were tested for depression by the forced swimming test (FST), locomotor and explorative activity by the staircase test, and cognitive functions were examined by the novel object recognition and Y-maze tests. Brain slices were stained for inflammatory processes.
Results: 16/6-Id injected mice were cognitively impaired as shown by significant differences in the preference for a new object in the novel object recognition test compared to controls (P = 0.012). Similarly, the preference for spatial novelty in the Y-maze test was significantly higher in the control group compared to the 16/6-Id-injected mice (42% vs. 9%, respectively, P = 0.065). Depression-like behavior and locomotor activity were not significantly different between the16/6-Id-injected and the control mice. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed an increase in astrocytes and microglial activation in the hippocampus and amygdala, in the 16/6-Id injected group compared to the control.
Conclusions: Passive transfer of 16/6-Id antibodies directly into mice brain resulted in cognitive impairments and histological evidence for brain inflammation. These findings shed additional light on the diverse mosaic pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric lupus.|
[177Lu – DOTA – Tyr3] – OCTREOTATE para el tratamiento de tumores neuroendocrinos gastroenteropancreáticos. Revisión sistemática de la literatura.
|[177Lu – DOTA – Tyr3] – OCTREOTATE para el tratamiento de tumores neuroendocrinos gastroenteropancreáticos. Revisión sistemática de la literatura.
Herrera Malo, Yariela Edith; Arévalo Leal, José Sinay; Mejía López, Arturo
Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are diagnosed in advanced state in approximately 60 – 80% of patients, their treatment options are limited. We reviewed the clinical benefit of radionuclide therapy with 177Lu – DOTA – Tyr3] – Octreotate in patients with advanced or inoperable disease.
Objective: To assess the efficacy, impact on quality of life and side effects of therapy with 177Lu DOTATE in patients with advanced gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.
Materials and Methods: We conducted a systematic review using a peer – reviewed search for clinical prospective and retrospective trials. This search was done in electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, SCIELO, OVID and the Cochrane Library) without language, year or publication status limitations. We included 5 studies; because they were heterogeneous no meta analysis was done.
Results: Overall tumor response was seen in 45- 57% of cases, stable disease in 27-38% and progression in 6-21% of cases included in the studies. Time to progression was 31 - 40 months and overall survival 31 – 51 months. Hematologic toxicity grade 3-4 presented in up to 9.5% of patients. Treatment had a significant positive impact in quality of life.
Conclusions: Therapy with 177Lu- DOTATATE offers a clinical benefit to patients with advanced gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors by improving quality of life, controlling symptoms and limiting progression of disease. The toxicity of the drug is low.|